Triangle of Life Published, in Farsi

This is the Book Cover, from the Safety Book of a long time ARTI member, Saadi Ghaderi. Published, in Iran during 2012.

This is the Book Cover, from the Safety Book of a long time ARTI member, Sadi Ghaderi. Published, in Iran during 2012.

Before I show you the English and Farsi ‘triangle of life’ material, let me first introduce, my friend, Sadi Ghaderi, the author,  a fellow humanitarian. Sadi is hoping to visit my home, in Canada, so that I might teach him, some more, life saving information, for his people. Here is an email that he sent me, on April 8, 2013. It shows his character. It is bilingual:

We should be grateful:

خدا رو شاکرم:
برای مالیاتی که پرداخت میکنم
چون به این معناست که شغلی دارم.FOR THE MESS TO CLEAN AFTER A PARTY
برای شلوغی و کثیفی خانه بعد از مهمانی
چون یعنی دوستانی دارم که پیشم میان.

برای لباسهایی که کمی برام تنگ شدن
چون یعنی غذا برای خوردن دارم.

برای سایه ای که شاهد کار منه
چون یعنی خورشید تو زندگیم میتابه.

برای چمنی که باید زده بشه، برای پنجره هایی که باید تمیز بشه و ناودانهایی که باید تعمیر بشه
چون یعنی خانه ای برای زنگی کردن دارم.
برای جای پارکی که در انتهای پارکینگ پیدا میکنم
چون یعنی قادر به راه رفتن هستم و وسیله نقلیه دارم.

برای هزینه بالا برای گرمایش
چون یعنی خانه گرمی دارم.

برای کوه لباسهایی که باید شسته و اتو بشوند
چون یعنی رختی برای پوشیدن دارم.
برای کوفتگی و خستگی عضلاتم آخر روز
چون یعنی قادر بودم که سخت کار کنم.FOR THE ALARM THAT GOES OFF
برای زنگ ساعتی که صبح مرا از خواب بیدار میکند
چون یعنی هنوز زنده هستم.

و در آخر برای این همه ایمیل
چون یعنی دوستان زیادی دارم که به فکر من هستند…SEND THIS TO SOMEONE YOU CARE ABOUT‏.
این متن را برای کسی بفرستید که برای شما ارزش دارد.
من اینچنین کردم.Live well, Laugh often‏, & Love with all of your heart
خوب زندگی کنید! زیاد بخندید!
با تمام قلبتان دوست بدارید!
“Everybody is the same, to me. When I was busy rescuing people, in Disasters; I never asked for a passport before saving their life. I saved everyone, the guerrillas and the government forces. I saved everyone, on all sides of the war, revolution or conflict.” doug copp

I believe as Sadi Ghaderi does, that ALL people should be saved by the’ triangle of life’. Just as we believe that no more people or children should die because of greedy insurance companies promoting ‘duck and cover’.

A quote from a previous Blog , The Triangle of Life Goes Viral, In Russia:”

The triumph of ‘common sense’, goodness and basic human values; that children’s lives are more important than USA Insurance Company profits…happens again, in another country.Good news for decent people.

The USA Insurance companies consider it to be cheaper, less trouble and more ‘actuarial’ profitable that children die from ‘duck and cover’; rather than, survive with the ‘triangle of life ‘. The VP of Underwriting, of one of the most profitable companies told us, several things: They are not in the business of saving lives. His job is NOT to save lives. His job is to maximize shareholder return. Dead children don’t seek compensation. It is better just to let them die the rubble.”

Here is the same brochure given to 5 million people, in Turkey. Now, it has been translated into Russian and is going viral. All the pages have links to and, for more information.

Here is page 4, the section ‘triangle of life’:

Triangle of Life section of 9 page public safety brochure

Triangle of Life section of 9 page public safety brochure

مدیریت بحران (Disaster Management)

آشنایی با مدیریت بحران و کاهش ریسک بلایای طبیعی

Poverty Reduce, the Essential Issue to Disaster Risk Reduction in Developing and Poor Countries

Poverty Reduce, the Essential Issue to Disaster Risk Reduction in Developing and Poor Countries

Saadi Ghaderi1, Khalid Moin2, Amir Ali Khan 3

1Esfahan water organization/Golpayegan dam, Esfahan, Iran. E-mail:
2Jamia Millia Islamia, Department of Civil Engineering, New Delhi, India. E-mail:
3National Institute of Disaster Management, New Delhi, India. rganisation/Institution, City, Country. E-mail:,

ABSTRACT: Natural hazards have a devastating impact on the poorer section of society. The major factors influencing disaster risk are human and social vulnerability, combined with the overall capacity to respond or mitigate the impact of impending natural hazards. A challenge faced by developing and underdeveloped countries, while implementing disaster risk reduction (DRR) programmes is in establishing a linkage between poverty reduction programmes and provision for safe and secure living environment. The paper will try to review the relationship between poverty reduction programmes and DRR programmes in some of the developing and underdeveloped countries. The paper will also highlight the importance of the measures to bridge the gap between poverty reduction and DRR like rural development, infrastructure development, increasing awareness, training, cooperation between regional countries, funding organizations and international institutions as essential factors to reduce poverty and natural disasters risk. Data and information will be presented in form of photographs, carts, tables etc.

Keywords: social vulnerability, developing and underdeveloped countries, disaster risk reduction


Natural disasters are a fact of life for every country, but they are especially dangerous for people in countries where people struggle to survive. It is in these poorer, third-world countries that a major natural disaster can kill thousands and threaten the livelihoods of those who survive the disaster. Natural catastrophes cause sharp increases in poverty; what is uncertain is the extent of their long-term impact on the economic viability of developing nations. People who live in poverty are very vulnerable to natural disasters and no safety bets. For example, their houses are not made of the best quality materials. Poor people in poor countries do not have insurance to rebuild their homes after disasters. Their governments do not have the resources for disaster relief. Also Poor countries have limited or no resources to deal with the post-traumatic stress those survivors may face for decades to come, especially for parents who feel guilty that their children perished.

About 95 percent of deaths caused by disasters occur in poor countries. A disaster of similar nature and size causes more deaths in poor countries than in rich ones[1]. The World Bank estimates that more than 90 percent of the populations of Bangladesh, Nepal, the Dominican Republic, Burundi, Haiti, Taiwan, Malawi, El Salvador, and Honduras live in areas at high relative risk of death from two or more hazards. Poor governance, external sanctions, poverty, and foreign debt force peasants to burn wood and charcoal for fuel and to engage in unsustainable farming techniques which drive deforestation, the consequences of which are discussed below[2].

This paper reviews and synthesizes the literature on poverty and natural disasters and discusses the role of poverty on impact of natural disasters. Therefore we studied the effects of natural disasters in poor developing countries in three decades latter. The main result of these researches shows that in each instance, the poor are the most deeply affected by the disaster and are more vulnerable to natural disasters, due to such factors as low national income, inadequate amount of education, skill, experience, health, work orientation, culture of poverty discrimination, place and type of residence, building construction, and social exclusion.


the International Emergency Disasters Database (EMDAT) distinguishes two different types of disasters (natural and technological) divided into 15 main categories, covering more than 50 sub-categories.

For the production of the tables and figures, the natural disasters were split into 3 specific groups:

·         Hydro-meteorological disasters: including floods and wave surges, storms, droughts and related disasters (extreme temperatures and forest/scrub fires), and landslides & avalanches;

·         Geophysical disasters: divided into earthquakes & tsunamis and volcanic eruptions;

·         Biological disasters: covering epidemics and insect infestations.

The economic cost of natural disasters has also skyrocketed, according to the International Red Cross. Direct economic losses from natural disasters multiplied five fold, to US$629 billion, from 1985-2005. And from 1999-2008, disaster estimated damage cost an average of $108 billion[3]. Other recent statistics:

·         3,852 disasters killed more than 780,000 people over the past 10 years, affected more than 2 billion others and cost a minimum of $960 billion. (Source: CRED)

·         Nine of the top 10 countries with the highest number of disaster-related deaths were in Asia.

·         The deadliest disasters of the last decade were the Indian Ocean Tsunami with 226,408 fatalities in 2004 and Cyclone Nargis with 138,366 deaths in Myanmar in 2008 (Source: CRED)

·         Since 1980, the World Bank has approved more than 500 operations related to disaster management, and between 1984 and 2009 the Bank has spent $52 billion in disaster-related projects[3].

The Red Cross warns that the frequency and cost of natural disasters will probably increase due to: Environmental, degradation, Climate change, Population growth, especially in cities and Globalization[3]. Between January 1975 and October 2008 and excluding epidemics, the International Emergency Disasters Database EMDAT recorded 8,866 events killing 2,283,767 people. Of these, 23 mega-disasters killed 1,786,084 people, mainly in developing countries[4]. During the decade of the 1990’s, the number of catastrophes has increased five-fold, and the damages have increased by a factor of nine, contrasted to the decade of the 1960’s (Munich Re, 1999). During the decade of 1987-1997, the total direct economic loss from natural catastrophes was 700 billion USD, for an average loss of 70 billion USD[5].

table 1: Natural disasters for the decade: 2000-2009[6].

The annual average death toll for the 2000 decade was 78,000, which is considerably higher than the 43,000 of the previous decade (1990s). But in the 1980s, the annual average of persons killed was almost as high with 75,000 owing to two major droughts and famines in Ethiopia and Sudan. The average number of natural hazard events per annum in 2000-2009 was 385 compared to the annual average of 258 for the decade 1990-1999 and 165 for the decade 1980-1989[7]. Earthquakes are the deadliest natural hazard of the past ten years and remain a serious threat for millions of people worldwide as eight out of the ten most populous cities in the world are on earthquake fault-lines. In the past decade, nearly 60 percent of the people killed by disasters died because of Earthquakes. After earthquakes, storms (22%) and extreme temperatures (11%) were the most deadly disasters between 2000 and 2009[7].

Fig. 2: Type of disasters and region are effected(2000-2009)[6].

3. Natural Disasters, Developing and Poor Countries

Many poor people, especially in developing countries, depend on natural resources for their social and economic wellbeing. These are commonly the rural population, and their poverty may be defined from different aspects. Resources such as agriculture, water, fisheries, or forestry generate income or secure livelihoods to the poor. If these resources deteriorate through pollution or overuse, the benefits for the poor decrease[8]. Droughts and other climatic hazards have the potential to disrupt people’s lives, leading to losses of income, assets and opportunities[9]. In 1998, 90% of the victims of natural disasters lived in LDCs; over half of Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) borrowers are exposed to natural disasters on a recurring basis, and there is a high statistical correlation between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth and the annual number of so-called “natural” disasters[10].

Disaster risk is also concentrated in Asia where the poor are concentrated on the most marginal lands vulnerable to drought, flood, and other natural hazards. And the poor, through ignorance and desperation, can contribute to their own downfall by deforesting hillsides or over –cultivating farmland. This leads to new cycles of flood, drought or landslides[11].

At least 900 million people now live in informal settlements in developing country cities. Many of these are in hazard prone areas. Urban hazards, such as flooding, are exacerbated by lack of investment in infrastructure[4]. Poor people suffer worst from natural disasters. In rich countries, the average number of deaths per disaster is 23, while in the poorest the average is 1,052. When the Hanshin earthquake struck Japan in 1995, it claimed the lives of some 6,000 people. But in 2005, the Kashmir earthquake in Pakistan, measuring about the same on the Richter scale, claimed 75,000 lives – 12 times as many – despite the fact that the earthquake affected areas with much lower levels of population density[11].

Compare the Impacts of Natural Disasters shows that in poor and developing countriesand due to setbackes to economic and social development and lacke resources for early warning systems, are more vulnerable to impact of natural disasters(Table 1)[12]. Foreign debt also limits the amount of revenue available for public services such as disaster warning systems or response plans[2].

Table 2: compare the impact of natural disasters in developing  and Industrialized Countries[12].

Industrialized Countries

Developing Countries

Tend to suffer higher economic losses in strict dollars terms

Cause setbacks to economic and social development

Have mechanisms in place to avoid loss of life, such as early warning systems

Lack resources for early warning systems

Have immediate emergency and medical care

Inflict massive casualties

Insure against property losses

Divert funds from development programs to emergency relief and recovery

To reduce the impact from natural disasters in developing countries, these countries will need economic resources and organizational support to implement any plans or projects that they undertake, knowledge of how to make their populace safer, and early warning of any natural disasters or potential hazards that may result from those natural disasters[12].

Risk transfer provides a safety net for economic loss to property and provides resources to rebuild. Generally, rebuilding means restoring the damaged property. Risk transfer for natural disasters in the developed world is primarily directed at transferring the risk of damage to private real property to the insurance industry.. In the developing world, with its high concentration of publicly owned infrastructure, an equivalent problem is the vulnerability of infrastructure to the sudden impact of major natural catastrophes[5].

Knowing these risk factors means governments can better plan how to protect people and develop their economies more safely. “Development needs to be regulated in terms of its impact on disaster risk[13]. Due to armed conflict and weak food distribution networks, The other challenges in poor  developing and countries

It wasn’t the weather that turned drought into famine in the Congo, Kenya and Sudan. It was armed conflict and weak food distribution networks. And in China, the government faces accusations that the Sichuan earthquake could only collapse many schools because of corrupt builders and officials[13].

In stark contrast, no child has died in a Californian school during an earthquake since 1933. Similarly, earthquakes in Japan kill fewer people than in developing countries thanks to “better enforcement of building codes, better emergency response, and the generally high level of preparedness,” says the Disaster Risks Hotspots report[13].


Although major natural disasters like earthquake, flood and storm occur in everywhere of the world, but mainly occurred in communities where high levels of poverty, and these events conversion into human and environment catastrophe. Human casualties resulting from crises within countries and internationally show that in crisis, mainly the poorest members of society are suffering the most casualties. According to UN statistics, the chance of killing people in developing and poor countries than rich countries against crisis is 4. Earthquake Haiti another example of such a relationship is confirmed. In Haiti, in fact, more than 200 thousand killed and two million homeless  not victims of the earthquake but victims the poverty. although, most people know the apparent reason of killing people is lack of unsafe buildings, but the main reason of that is  poverty. While each region in the Periphery or Semi-Periphery-from Sri Lanka to India to Bolivia-may experience unique environmental problems, poverty caused by an unjust international politico-economic regime is a persistent factor that aggravates prevention and recovery efforts. It also ensures that, in each instance, the poor are the most deeply affected by the disaster. To reduce the impact from natural disasters in developing countries, these countries will need economic resources and organizational support to implement any plans or projects that they undertake, knowledge of how to make their populace safer, and early warning of any natural disasters or potential hazards that may result from those natural disasters. Developing country governments including Iran and India should further develop and implement a national adaptation strategy, which is properly mainstreamed across the government’s programmes for eradicating poverty, and adopted by and co-ordinated across all the key ministries. Disaster Risk Reduction needs to be part of long term planning at all levels of government, across all ministries, and particularly at the departmental and municipal level. Disaster preparedness has to be stepped up. Infrastructure development, increasing awareness, training, cooperation between regional countries, funding organizations and international institutions as essential factors to reduce poverty and natural disasters risk. Also Scientific research programs on climate change, its impacts on natural resources, Improvement of the data collection system and analysis, Enhancing of the system of forecasting, modeling and early warning on natural disasters, Building institutional and technical capacity on adaptation issues is recommended.


[1] Beth, Poverty and Natural Disasters, Oct 15, 2005,

[2] Justin Van, Ness, Poverty and “Natural” Disasters, Natural disaster hotspots: A global risk analysis / Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (New York: First Anchor Books, 1999), 16,

[3] Natural Disasters: Counting the Cost, February 21, 2010,

[4] 2009 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, Risk and poverty in a changing climate, Invest today for a safer tomorrow,

[5] Freeman, Paul K., Infrastructure, Natural Disasters, and Poverty, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis(IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria,

[6] Guha-Sapir, Debarati, Disasters in Numbers 2009 and the Decade, , CRED, University of Louvain, Brussels ,January 28th, 2010 – Geneva,

[7] Earthquakes caused the deadliest disasters in the past decade, UNISDR 2010/01, United Nations, secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Geneva, 28 January 2010,

[8] Theme: Poverty,

[9] Rodriguez, Jose, Vos, Femke, Below, Regina, Guha-Sapir, Debarati, Annual Disaster Statistical Review 2008 The numbers and trends, Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters,

[10] Natural Disasters: A Challenge for Development of Latin America / World Bank(Zapata) / Natural Disaster hotspots: A global risk analysis,

[11] Suffering the Science, Climate change, people, and poverty, 130 Oxfam Briefing Paper, 6 July 2009,…/climate_change/…/bp130_suffering_science.pdf

[12] Charlotte, Hill, How Poverty Makes Natural Disasters Worse, Published January 23, 2010 ,

[13] Tulloch,James, Disaster Risk: How Poverty Leads to Catastrophe, March 17, 2010,


[14] Disaster Risk Management Programme, [2002-07], National Disaster Management Division, Ministry of Home Affairs Government of India, United Nations Development Programme,

[15] Disaster Mitigation and Management, National Disaster Management Division, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India,…/Strategy%20paperTsunami.pdf

[16] S. K. Jain, Earthquake Reduction: Status Report for India, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kanpur, India,

[17] National Report of the Islamic Republic of Iran on Disaster Reduction, World Conference on Disaster Reduction, 18th-22nd January 2005, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan,

[18] Tulloch, James, Haiti: Natural Disaster or Man-Made Catastrophe?, March 11, 2010 ,

[19] Kunzemann, Thilo, Microinsurance Profile India – Protecting the Poor, January 16, 2008

[20] H.N. Srivastava, G.D. Gupta, Management of Natural Disasters in Developing Countries, Centre for Science & Technology of Non-Aligned and Other Developing Countries (NAM S&T Centre), 2006,

[21] Englum, Lynn When poverty meets natural disaster & what that means with a changing climate, 02/14/2010 ,

[22] Gabe,Thomas, Falk, Gene, McCarty, Maggie, Hurricane Katrina: Social-Demographic Characteristics of Impacted Areas Domestic Social Policy Division, Virginia W. Mason Congressional Cartography Program

Library of Congress, CRS Report for Congress November 4, 2005,

[23] New Orleans: Poor residents suffer deepest impact of Hurricane Katrina, UN-HABITAT,…/SOWCR%2013.pdf

[24] Chakrabarti, P.G. Dhar, Regional Cooperation on Disaster Management in South Asia: Challenges and Opportunities for Regional Early Warning System for Natural Disasters,…/Day1/…/Dhar%20Chakrabarti.pdf

[25] Estimating the Direct Economic Damage of the Earthquake in Haiti, Eduardo A. Cavallo, Andrew Powell, Oscar Becerra, Inter-American Development Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, 2010,

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+ نوشته شده در  چهارشنبه 23 اسفند1391ساعت 21:37  توسط سعدی قادری  |  نظر بدهید

مثلث حیات در زلزله(Triangle of Life)

3-5- مثلث حيات (Triangle of Life)

3-5-1- مقدمه

آنچه تا کنون ما از پناه گیری به هنگام وقوع زلزله آموخته ایم در زیر میز و چهار چوب درب بوده است. فکر کنم کمتر کسی از ما با روش “مثلث حیات” آشنایی دارد و نحوه پناه گیری به این روش را می  داند. همه ما در مدرسه روش  زیر میز و چهار چوب در را یاد گرفته ایم که مساوی با مرگ است!

متاسفانه در حال حاضر روش “خميده و پنهان” (Duck And Cover) تنها روش اجرايي پناه گيري به هنگام وقوع زلزله در ايران است. اين روش در مدارس، ادرات و تمامي مانورهاي زلزله آموزش،اجرا و توصيه مي شود؛ و اين درحالي است که در این روش احتمال زنده ماندن بسیار پایین است. در اين بخش به توصيف و تشريح روش “مثلث حيات” پرداخته و نحوه پناه گيري با این روش و با ارائه شکل ها و تصاویر  آموزش داده می شود.

آقاي داگ کوپ (Doug Copp) رئيس گروه بین المللی تیم نجات آمریکاست (ARTI) American Rescue Team International که مبتکر روش “مثلث حيات” است. اين تيم از مجربترين گروه‌هاي نجات در جهان مي‌باشد. ‌ايشان به درون 895 ساختمان فرو ريخته ناشي از زلزله خزيده است و با گروه‌هاي نجات 60 كشور كار كرده است. همچنين آقاي داگ کوپ به مدت دو سال كارشناس سازمان ملل در زمينه کاهش بلایا (UNX051-UNIENET) بوده است و از سال 1985 به بعد در صحنه بلاياي طبيعي عمده جهان بجز مواردي كه فاجعه آني بوده، شركت داشته است.

آقای داگ کوپ در زمینه ایمنی و مقابله با بلایی چون زلزله، سونامی، سیل، آتش سوزی، طوفان، گردباد تخصص دارد و در تعداد زيادي از كشورهاي جهان مانند ترکیه، آرژانتین، مکزیک، روسیه، تایوان، فرانسه و ایتالیا گروه‌هاي نجات را سازماندهي نموده است و عضو گروه نجات بسیاری از اين كشورهاي می باشد.

در سال 1996 گروه آنها يك فيلم مستند ساخت كه صحت متدولوژي ارائه شده ايشان يعني “مثلث حيات” را تاييد مي‌كرد. دولت مركزي تركيه و مقامات محلي و دانشگاه شهر استانبول در تهيه و فيلم‌برداري از اين آزمايش علمي و عملي با تيم ARTI همكاري داشتند. آنها در یک کلاس مدرسه (طراحی و ساخته شده برای این آزمایش) 20 مانكن قرار دادند. 10 مانكن را بصورت “خميده و پنهان” (Duck And Cover) و 10 مانكن ديگر را به روش ابداعي آقاي داگ کوپ  تحت نام “مثلث حيات” (Triangle Of Life) جاسازی نمودند.

پس از فرو ريختن کلاس در اثر زلزله مصنوعي، آنها به درون آوارها خزيدند و وارد ساختمان‌ها شدند تا نتايج آزمايش را فيلم‌برداري و مستند كنند. در اين فيلم كه فنون زنده ماندن افراد را تحت نظارت مستقيم و شرايط علمي مرتبط با ريزش آوار به صورت يک تمرين نشان مي داد، به روشني نشان داد مانکن هایی که از روش “خميده و پنهان” استفاده كردند، شانس زنده ماندن صفر درصد و آنهائي كه از روش “مثلث حيات” استفاده كردند، 100 درصد بود. اين فيلم در تركيه و كشورهاي اروپائي توسط ميليون‌ها بیننده ديده شد و در ايالات متحده و كانادا و آمريكاي لاتين هم از طريق تلويزيون به نمايش گذاشته شد.

آقاي داگ کوپ مي گويد: “اولين ساختماني كه بداخل آن خزيدم، مدرسه‌اي در شهر مكزيكوسيتي و در جريان زلزله سال 1985 بود. همه بچه‌ها در زير ميزهايشان بودند و همگي تا ضخامت استخوان‌هايشان در هم كوبيده شده بودند. آنها مي‌توانستند زنده بمانند اگر در كنار ميزهايشان و در راهروي بين ميزها دراز مي‌كشيدند. كاري كه انجام داده بودند غيرمعقول و غيرضروري بود و در تعجب بودم كه چرا آنها در راهروها (راه روهای بین میزها) نبودند. من آن موقع نمي‌دانستم كه به آنها گفته شده‌بود كه خود را زير چيزي پنهان سازند.”

به ‌سادگي مي‌توان دريافت، هنگامي‌كه ساختمان‌ها تخريب مي‌شوند وزن سقف كه بر روي اشياء و مبلمان فرود مي ریزد، آنها را درهم مي‌كوبد و فضاي خالي‌اي را در كنار آنها ايجاد مي‌نمايد اين فضا همان چيزي است كه من به آن “مثلث حيات” مي‌گويم. هر اندازه اشياء بزرگتر و محكم‌تر باشند كمتر فشرده مي‌شوند و هر اندازه كمتر فشرده شوند، فضاي خالي كه احتمال زنده ماندن افرادي را كه به آن پناه مي‌برند بيشتر مي‌شود.

3-5-2- روش “مثلث حيات”

در اين روش فرد در کنار يکي از وسايل و اشيايي که در کنار اوست پناه مي گيرد. در اين روش هر گونه پنهان شدن در زير ميز، صندلي، تخت و نيز چارچوب در کاملا رد مي شود و منسوخ است و آنرا عامل مرگ حتمي افراد به هنگام بروز زلزله مي داند.

هر اندازه وسايل و اشياء محکم و داراي استحکام کافي باشند و اندازه انها بزرگ باشد، مثلث ايجاد شده در کنار آنها بزرگتر و محکم تر است و باعث افزايش ايمني و شانس بیشتر سالم ماندن افراد به هنگام وقوع زلزله و ريزش آوار می باشد.

شکل 3-4 نحوه پناه گیری صحیح به روش “مثلث حيات” و روش نادرست “خميده و پنهان” را نشان می دهد.

شکل 3-4: راست: پناه گيري در زير ميز به روش “خميده و پنهان شده” (نادرست)، چپ: پناه گيري در کنار يک کمد به روش “مثلث حیات” (صحيح([74]

 3-5-3- نكات و توصيههاي مهم آقاي Doug Copp

1-     در هنگام بروز زلزله و فرو ريختن ساختمان هر كسي كه از روش “خميده و پنهان” استفاده كند، بدون استثناء و همواره محكوم به مرگ است. افرادي كه زير اشيائي نظير ميزها و اتومبيل‌ها مي‌روند در همانجا له مي‌شوند. شکل 3-5 “مثلث حیات” تشکیل شده در کنار یک اتومبیل را نشان می  دهد. داخل اتومبیل  ماندن مساوی با مرگ است.

شکل 3-5: مثلث حیات ايجاد شده در کنار يک اتومبیل [74]

2-     سگ‌ها و گربه‌ها و بچه‌ها همگي آنها اغلب بصورت طبيعي در وضعيت جنيني كه در رحم قرار دارند، خم مي‌شوند و شما هم بايد همين طور عمل كنيد. اين غريزه طبيعي ايمني و اصل بقاء است.

شما مي‌توانيد با همين شيوه در فضاي خالي كوچكتري زنده بمانيد. پس در زمان بروز زلزله سريع خود را كنار اشياء بزرگ، مانند كاناپه بزرگ و يا اجسام محكمي كه در مقابل ضربه كمتر فشرده مي‌شوند و فضاي خالي در مجاور خود باقي مي‌گذارند، قرار دهيد (شکل 3-6).

شکل 3-6: نحوه صحیح پناه گیری در کنار یک میز و یا مبل به روش “مثلث حیات” [74]

3-     ساختمان‌هاي چوبي از ايمن‌ترين نوع ساختمان‌ها محسوب مي‌شوند كه مي‌توانيد در هنگام وقوع زلزله در داخل آنها باشيد، دليل آن ساده است زيرا چوب انعطاف پذیر می باشد و با نيروي زلزله به راحتي حركت مي‌كند. اگر ساختمان چوبي فرو ريزد فضاهاي خالي بزرگي ايجاد مي‌شود. همچنين ساختمان‌هاي چوبي داراي وزن متمركز شده و خرد كنندگي كمتري هستند. ساختمان‌هاي آجري مي‌توانند در حد قطعات آجر متلاشي شوند و آجرها منجر به بروز صدمات زيادي مي‌شوند، البته اجساد له شده ناشي از فرو ريختن آنها از صدمات حاصل از فرو ريختن قطعات بتني بزرگ، كمتر مي‌باشد.

در شکل 3-7 راست، خرابی یک خانه چوبی باحفظ اسکلت آن را می توان مشاهده کرد ولی در شکل چپ تخریب کامل ساختمان های بتنی به وضوح دیده می شود. خانه های چوبی به دلیل سبکی مصالح و انعطاف پذیری مصالح، خرابی کمتر  و در نتیجه آسیب کمتری نسبت به ساختمان های بتنی و سنگی دارند که سنگین تر و غیر قابل انعطاف می باشند.

شکل 3-7: راست: خرابی اندک یک خانه با مصالح چوبی [75]، چپ: تخریب کامل ساختمان های بتنی در زلزله سیچوان چین، 2008 [76]

4-     اگر زلزله در شب و زماني كه شما در رختخواب خود هستيد اتفاق بيفتد، كافي است از روي تخت به پايين بغلتيد، يك فضاي ايمن و مناسب در اطراف تخت وجود دارد. هتل‌ها مي‌توانند نرخ زنده‌ماندن ساكنان خود را در هنگام وقوع زلزله، با نصب تابلوي راهنما در پشت درب اتاق‌ها و اطلاع‌رساني به ساكنان مبني بر اينكه “در هنگام وقوع زلزله روي زمين كنار تختخواب دراز بكشيد” افزايش دهند (شکل 3-8).

شکل 3-8: ريزش آوار بر روي تختخواب و مثلث ايجاد شده در کنار آن [74]

5-     اگر شما هنگام وقوع زلزله در حال تماشاي تلويزيون هستيد و فرار از در يا پنجره برايتان بسادگي امكان‌پذير نيست، در وضعيت جنيني در كنار كاناپه يا صندلي بزرگ خم شويد (شکل 3).

6-     هر كسي كه در زمان وقوع زلزله در زير درب قرار گيرد، محكوم به مرگ است. زيرا هنگامي كه زير درب قرار دارد، چهارچوب اطراف درب به سمت جلو و عقب مي افتد، و زیر مصالح ساختماني بالاي چهار چوب درب له خواهد شد و اگر ستون‌ها به طرفين بيفتند(چپ و راست) در اين حالت توسط آنها به دو نيم خواهد شد لذا در هر دو صورت جان خود را از دست خواهد داد (شکل 3-9).

شکل 3-9: روش هاي نادرست پناه گيري به هنگام وقوع زلزله در زیر چهارچوب در و  زیر میز [74]

7-     هرگز در هنگام وقوع زلزله بر روي پله ها نرويد، زيرا پله‌ها داراي گشتاور فركانسي متفاوتي هستند و لذا مجزا از تنه اصلي ساختمان نوسان مي‌كنند. به عبارتي پله‌ها و بقيه ساختمان با همديگر برخورد مي‌كنند تا اينكه شكست سازه‌اي در پله رخ دهد و كساني كه روي پله هستند قبل از اينكه پله خراب شود توسط گام‌هاي پله گرفتار شده و بصورت وحشتناكي قطع عضو خواهند شد. در هنگام زلزله حتي اگر ساختمان فرو نريزد باز هم از پله‌ها دور بمانيد، زيرا پله‌ها از مناطقي هستند كه احتمال تخريب بيشتري دارند. حتي اگر پله‌ها توسط زلزله فرو نريزد، ممكن است در اثر وزن ازدحام زياد افرادي كه فريادكشان از روي آن در حال فرار هستند فرو بريزد. پله‌ها بايد پس از وقوع زلزله هر چند كه ساختمان آسيب نديده باشد از نظر ايمني مورد آزمايش قرار گيرند. شکل های (3-10).

شکل 3-10: راست: خرابی راه پله ها در ساختمان مرکزی بانکو، زلزله ماناگوا، نیکاراگوئه، 6.2 ریشتر، 1972، چپ: خرابی راه پله ها در یک ساختمان، زلزله نوتریج کالیفرنیا با بزرگای 6.7 ریشتر، 1994 [77]

8- به ديوارهاي محيطي ساختمان نزديك شويد و يا در صورت امكان به بيرون از آنها برويد. هرچه داخل‌تر و دور‌تر از ديوارهاي محيطي ساختمان باشيد احتمال اينكه راه گريز شما مسدود شود بيشتر خواهد بود.

9- كساني كه در هنگام وقوع زلزله در خيابان‌ها داخل خودروي خويش مي‌مانند وقتي كه خيابان طبقه فوقاني روي آنها خراب مي‌شود (در اتوبان‌هاي دو طبقه)، جان خود را از دست مي‌دهند. اين دقيقآ همان چيزي است كه در آزادراه نيميتز (Nimitz Freeway) رخ داد و قربانيان زلزله سانفرانسيسكو همگي در داخل خودروي خود به هنگام زلزله باقي ماندند و همگي كشته شدند. آنها مي توانستند زنده بمانند اگر از خودرو خارج شده و در كنار آن نشسته و يا دراز كشيده بودند.كليه خودروهاي له شده بجز خودروهائي كه ستون‌هاي پل مستقيمآ روي آنها سقوط كرده بود، داراي فضاي خالي‌اي به ارتفاع 90 سانتي متر در اطراف خود بودند (شکل های 3-11 و 3-12).

شکل 3-11: تصويري از واژگوني خودروها در يکي از اتوبان هاي شهر سانتیاگو، شيلي، زلزله با بزرگا 8.8، در سال 2010 [78]

شکل 3-12: فروپاشی  طبقه اول ساختمان بر روی خودروها، زلزله 6.8 ریشتری نورتریج کالیفرنیا درسال 1994، تشکیل “مثلث حیات” در کنار اتومبیل[74]

10 – از خزيدن در داخل خرابه‌هاي دفاتر روزنامه‌ها و يا اداراتي كه كاغذهاي انباشته زيادي در آنها وجود داشته است، دريافتم كه كاغذ داراي خاصيت ارتجاعي بوده و چندان فشرده نمي‌شوند، لذا فضاهاي خالي زيادي در اطراف بسته‌هاي كاغذ بوجود مي‌آيد كه مي‌تواند در زمان زلزله مورد استفاده قرار گيرد (شکل 3-13).

شکل 3-13: “مثلث حيات” ايجاد شده در کنار فايل ها و کمدهاي اداري [74]

+ نوشته شده در  جمعه 18 اسفند1391ساعت 23:3  توسط سعدی قادری  |  نظر بدهید

نویسنده این وبلاگ سعدی قادری هستم. در حال حاضر دانشجوی دکتری عمران در پژوهشگاه مهندسی بحران و پدافند غیر عامل اصفهان می باشم.
با توجه به بلاخیز بودن کشور عزیزمان ایران و به منظور آشنایی بیشتر دانشجویان، علاقمندان و عموم مردم با بلایای طبیعی، کاهش ریسک بلایا و مدیریت بحران، این وبلاگ تلاش می کند اطلاعات، دانش و تجربه های مربوط به شناخت بلایای طبیعی و مدیریت بحران در جهان و ایران را ارائه نماید. امید که گامی در جهت داشتن جامعه ای ایمن و ایرانی آباد باشد.

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اسفند 1391

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مدیریت بحران


طرح های پژوهشی مدیریت سوانح طبیعی دانشگاه ملبورن
پژوهشگاه بین المللی زلزله شناسی و مهندسی زلزله
مجله اینترنتی مدیریت بحران و سوانح
مطالعات مدیریت بحران
سازمان مدیریت بحران کشور
موج پیشرو
سازمان پیشگیری و مدیریت بحران شهر تهران
مدیریت ساماندهی و مدیریت بحران

The World's Most Important Safety Device. It has saved an entire school of children for less than $50-$90. It gives you enough warning, before *YOU FEEL*the destructive earthquake waves, to save your life. It really works! and it is fabulous!

The World’s Most Important Safety Device. It has saved an entire school of children for less than $50-$90. It gives you enough warning, before *YOU FEEL*the destructive earthquake waves, to save your life. It really works! and it is fabulous!

About doug copp

Prior to 911, I was the most experienced rescue person, in the world. Permanently disabled from 911, I have changed my life-focus towards preventing bureaucracy and vested financial interests from causing the deaths of 200,000 children per year. I am promoting the belief that the lives of children are more important than American Insurance Company Shareholder profits. International Disaster Reduction Institute Institute of International Disaster January 2010 – Present (3 years 10 months)worldwide The world's most experienced Rescuer/Disaster Mitigation Management Expert , crawling inside of 896 collapsed buildings at 100+ disaster events during war, peace and revolution Plus a lifetime of High Adventure; including, an undercover cop. .At almost 3,000 serious life threatening events and the medical survival from enough toxins to kill 200+ people, I am probably the world's leading survivor, from death. Survival Scientist Linkedin Profile: Summary saving lives, reducing suffering. "You must not only be good. You must be wise and wise enough to know who is good." doug copp Sometimes it is NOT enough to do good things must be strong enough to endure the attack...that will follow; especially if you are trying to place children's lives ahead of USA Insurance Company Profits...crawling inside of 896 collapsed buildings helped to give me the courage that it takes; especially, considering that I have been sick every single day; since 911. FYI: USA Insurance companies oppose my 'triangle of life' survival method; because, 90% of the children would survive; instead of 98% dead. This translates into//actuarial tables indicate, survivor's seeking compensation for trauma (physical or mental) with a net result of diminished shareholder return. The insurance Company Executives told us: ” We are in the business of maximizing shareholder return..NOT..saving lives.” The USA School Boards have been told by their Insurance Carriers that their policies would be terminated or the premium would become extreme..if the children are allowed to survive, following my method. I tried to learn: I am responsible for 'what I do' and for 'what I do NOT do'. I am responsible for 'MY actions'. I am not responsible for what other people do. I discovered: that people never regret 'doing the right thing'. They only regret 'doing the wrong thing'. A life devoid of 'something worth dying for', is a life, 'not worth living'. Do all the living you can; while you can. 650,000 people died, at the major disasters I worked at..I have seen things that you cannot imagine. For all the persecution, hatred, violence and disgusting behavior that I have endured; in fighting against, evil, greedy bastards who exploited the helpless and preyed upon people..I am glad that I always did 'the right thing'. I always stood up; many times, by myself; but never alone.. If you can't be YOURSELF then who can you be?
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2 Responses to Triangle of Life Published, in Farsi

  1. Thanks Doug for the latest info.Demetris

    • amerrescue says:

      Dear Demetris:

      The 9 page general safety program (see ‘The Triangle of Life goes viral, in Russia’Blog) or at least the Triangle of Life (page 4) needs to be distributed, in Greek. Can you do this?

      ‘The TRiangle of Life’ has been published in English, Spanish, Turkish, German, Japaneze, French, Kazakh, Farsi and some others but only some Greek Newspapers and TV Interviews. If you can translate it. Please email me a copy to put up on the Blog. The Earthquake In Kalamatta was one of my first. The Greek Government paid for most of my expenses actually put me in joint command with Manos Christakos (a very fine and extremely competent man with EPPO- Earthquake Planning and Preparation Division- we lost touch many years ago. I am sure that my friends there would still help. They would certainly take every thing I would say as Valid and truu; especially, the triangle of life’ brochure sent to them).Let me know. ciao..douglas

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